Tacitus reports about the Prussians as eastern neighbors of the Teutons. Prussian tribes inhabited the country between Vistula and Neman river since 2000 B.C.
The Migrations Period of Germanic, Slavic and other tribes on the European continent begins. Triggered by the incursions of the Huns many Germanic tribes move West and South to the areas of the Western Roman Empire.
During the second phase of the Migrations Period (500 900) Slavic, Turkish and other tribes move to Eastern Europe.
Vojtech Adalbert of Prague brings soldiers of Boleslaw I. Chobry to Prussia. They reach the Baltic Sea in the area of Danzig but they are driven back by the Prussians.
In the following years the Poles tried multiple times to conquer the settlements of the Prussians and the Pomeranians to achieve access to the Baltic Sea. Prussians and the Pomeranian resisted successfully.
Boleslaw I. Chobry becomes the first Polish king.
Duke Konrad Mazowiecki calls the Teutonic Order for support against the Prussians.
As reward the Order receives the Kulmer Land (Chelmno), where it establishes the castle Thorn.
The Teutonic Order is established in the area around Danzig and prevails over far areas at the eastern Baltic Sea.
The Black Death devastates all of Europe.
The power of the Hanseatic League reaches its peak.
Poland and Lithuania are united to a large realm by the marriage of the Lithuanian Prince Jagiello with the twelve-year-old heiress to the throne Jadwiga.
With this marriage Poland also received entrance to the Baltic Sea.
Battle of Tannenberg (Grunwald) - the Polish Lithuanian army triumphs over the Teutonic Order.
First Treaty of Thorn between Poland-Lithuania and the Teutonic Order. It is a weak compromise for both sides. So the conflict is not settled and starts again within the same year.
The Prussian Federation develops. The Prussian aristocracy unites with the goal of freeing themselves from the rule of the Teutonic Order and of gaining a union with the Kingdom of Poland.
War between the Kingdom of Poland and the Teutonic Order.
The Marienburg castle is conquered by Poland. The Grand Master of the Teutonic Order moves east to Königsberg.
Second Treaty of Thorn. It terminates the 12-years of war against the Teutonic Order. The Teutonic Order recognizes the sovereignty of the Polish kings.
Alliance of the Jagiellons with France and Venice against the Habsburger. The Habsburger ally themselves with the Teutonic Order and with Iwan III. of Moscow.
A new Polish system of government, the Nobles' Democracy is established during the Diet of Radom. The new system supplies the aristocracy with extended rights. The "Sejm", the parliament populated by the aristocracy is now the highest legislative organ in Poland.
Secularization of the Order state - Albrecht of Hohenzollern, Grand Master of the Teutonic Order, converts the Order state into a secular territory under Polish feudal law. To do so he converts to Lutheranism and assumes the rank of hereditary Duke of Brandenburg.
Nicholas Kopernikus (born 19.02.1473 in Thorn) develops the heliocentric conception of the world and literally revolutionizes the science of astronomy.
The first Dutch settlement wave arrives. The Dutch settlers were expelled from Holland by Karl V.
The religious conflicts of the 16th century reached extreme extent in the Netherlands and made many Protestants leave that area. Many Friesian and Dutch people made use of the existing trade relations to Danzig and settled in Prussia.
Peak of the Polish Reformation movement. Especially the German middle class, the University city of Königsberg and the aristocracy profess themselves of the Reformation. There are three main protestant Christian movements: the Bohemian Brethren, the Lutherans and the Calvinists.
A resolution of parliament secures the liberty of faith. Thereby Poland becomes a center of cultural and denominational tolerance during a time when the rest of Europe is shaken with violent religious wars.
First Dutch settlers are mentioned for the area around Danzig.
Second Dutch settlement wave.
Dutch settlers are mentioned in the area of Thorn.
Jesuits start with the Counter-Reformation in Poland. The increasing pressure on the protestant settlers results in shifting the orientation of new German settlements further to the East.
In the Union of Lublin Poland and Lithuania are formally united to an indivisible nation, the Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth.
Transfer of the Polish residence from Cracow to Warsaw.
Beginning of the period of Elective Monarchy in Poland-Lithuania the first free king election after the death of Zygmunt II. August that extinguished the Jagiellon Dynasty.
In the village Słońsk at the Vistula the first German settlement in the area of Central Poland is founded.
The village of Bogpomoz at the right bank of the Vistula near Włocławek is founded.
Beginning of the Thirty Years' War (1618 - 1648). From its outset it was a religious conflict between Protestants and Catholics. It principally concentrated in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involved most of the major continental powers.
Death of the last duke of Prussia. The duchy Prussia is handed as Polish fief to Johann Sigismund Electoral Prince of Brandenburg.
East Prussia is handed to George William Electoral Prince of Brandenburg. The region is now governed from Berlin.
Swedish Polish war.
First Swedish war - Gustav Adolph of Sweden occupies Pillau. In particular the Vistula area becomes Theater of war.
Contract of Altmark: it regulates a six-year armistice between Poland and Sweden.
Near Warsaw German settlers live on the "Sächsischen Kämpe", an island in the Vistula.
Sigismund III. dies. His son Wladyslaw IV. Wasa is elected as king. In his reign Poland becomes a place of refuge for Protestants from Silesia and Bohemia.
The Treaty of Westphalia ends the Thirty Years' War.
Northern Wars - A series of conflicts between Sweden and its adversaries Poland (1655-1660), Russia (1656-1661), Brandenburg-Prussia (1657-1660), the Holy Roman Empire (1657-60) and Denmark (1657-1658, 1658-1660).
Strong regional princes and weak elected kings had led to a splintering of Poland. Sweden uses this vacuum of powers to invade Poland.
During the wars Poland looses an estimated 1/3 of its population (relatively higher losses than during World War II). Huge areas suffer from brutal devastations.
Because of the Northern Wars there are no or few new German settlements in Central Poland between 1650 and 1730.
The Treaty of Oliva terminates the first Northern War and ends the Polish ambition for a role as Baltic Sea power.
The treaty finally settled conflicts that had been open between Sweden and Poland since the War against Sigismund (1598-1599), the Polish War (1600-1629) and the Northern Wars (1655-1660).
Prussia is released from the Polish feudal sovereignty and becomes a great power.